Gutman Conference Center Lobby, Lower Level (outside of elevators)
Panel Sessions I 8:45-10:15
Art in Learning Spaces
Understanding Art Student Characters in Chinese Teen TV Dramas
This observational study used Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework in examining the portrayal of art students in Chinese teen television programs from 2016 to 2018. Findings revealed discerned patterns about the gender distribution, life condition, social relation, and art categories of this special population in China. Art student was presented as a male privileged, visual art dominated, cool but challenging group. These media perceptions, regardless of their accuracy, may powerfully frame teenager viewers' attitudes, beliefs, and self-identification towards arts and art students, as well as their behaviors and career choices in relation to arts in general.
Siyao Lyu, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Slow Looking through Spatial Elements in Art Museums
While timed museum education programs often only cater to specific and small groups, the spatial design of an exhibition could assist broader audiences in a more consistent, accessible, and spontaneous approach. Therefore, this pilot study designed contrasting gallery settings and examined people's experiences in respective settings to explore what spatial elements influence people's slow looking, meaning making, and learning of both the artworks and the gallery space, and how the elements create these effects. Through this study, we can gain insights into effective exhibition design practices, which can benefit the broader public through more meaningful museum interactions.
Siyao Lyu, Yi Chen & Nathan Ward, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Making Art in that Other Place: A Portrait of an Art Studio in a Cancer Center
Expressive arts therapy, the idea that the creative process behind making art can reduce anxiety and stress, is used in a variety of healthcare settings. This case study of an art studio in a cancer center examines the benefits of art making for patients dealing with the trauma of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Interviews and on-site observations revealed that patients who regularly used the art room found it beneficial because it helped them stay in the present moment, feel as if they could escape, express a difficult emotion, have fun, learn a new skill, and develop a non-patient identity.
Emily Piper-Vallillo, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Moderator: Christopher Cleveland
Examining the Costs of District-Level Approaches to Integrating Digital Learning into Schools
North Carolina prioritizes, in both policy and funding, digital learning to prepare student for success in postsecondary education and the labor market. While policy on digital learning forges ahead, little is known about the resources used and effectiveness of approaches. This paper examines the operationalization and resource allocation among five districts to understand of how digital learning shifts investments in education. Districts represent a range of demographics and urbanicity. Policies regarding purchasing, professional development, and financing are analyzed. This paper contributes contextual information to inform future experimentation and investment in digital learning, aiming to improve successful scaling up of approaches.
Amanda Danks (Presenting Author) & A. Brooks Bowde, North Carolina State University
Does Pico Protect Penguins in the School Library? A Case Study on the Impact of the Island Trees School District
This study investigates if elected school board members acknowledge the Island Trees School District v. Pico decision when navigating a book challenge. Using a case study design, this study centers on a 2009 challenge of the book And Tango Makes Three in a large suburban public school district. Preliminary results indicate school board members did not adhere to the Pico decision. As a result, it is not clear how or if the First Amendment protections of public school students were protected as elected school board members navigated this particular book challenge.
Pamela Catherine Callahan, University of Maryland, College Park
Technical and Vocational Education in Kenya
An assessment of the TVET framework in Kenya, analyzing the existing TVET sector as well as the documented needs of current and emerging economic sectors
Evan Townsend (Presenting Author), Zina Noel, Saki Malose & Janet Shin, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Race, Ethnicity, and Equity
Moderator: Andrew Westover
Challenges of Irish School Teachers in Meeting Needs of All Students and Multicultural Classrooms
This research study that explores the challenges of Irish primary school teachers in meeting the diverse needs of students and managing multicultural classrooms for inclusive and quality education. The research study adopts a mixed method research strategy, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Available statistical data will be analysed, and data collection will be done through interviews and focus group with teachers, students, government officials, policymakers, school principals, and teachers' union representatives in Ireland. Preliminary findings from review of literature reveal that many mainstream primary school teachers were not adequately prepared to handle the diversity bulge experienced in many Irish schools.
Seun Adebayo, National University of Ireland Galway
Examining the Association between Skin Tone and Ethnic-Racial Identity among Colombian Adolescents
The current study examined phenotype and ethnic-racial identity (ERI) among Colombian adolescents to test conceptual notions of colorism. Data were from a project examining ERI among Colombian adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, which included reliably coded photographs of the participants, aged 13-18. Findings indicated that darker skin tone was associated with more negative feelings about ethnic-racial group membership among adolescents who self-identified as Blanco, but not among those who identified as Mestizo or Latino. Skin tone was not related to ethnic-racial exploration or clarity about one's ethnic racial identity for any self-identification group.
Sonrisa Murray, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Ethnic-Racial Discrimination, ERI, and Psychosocial Adjustment among Adolescents in Colombia
This study examined whether findings from the U.S. context on the relations among ethnic-racial identity (ERI), ethnic-racial-based discrimination, and psychosocial adjustment extended to the Colombian context. Data were from a project examining ERI among 462 adolescents in Medellín, Colombia. Findings using path analysis suggested that adolescents who reported experiencing more frequent ethnic-racial-based discrimination tended to have lower self-esteem and elevated depressive symptoms, whereas adolescents who explored, better understood, and felt more positively about their ERI tended to have higher self-esteem and lower depressive symptoms. However, interaction effects indicated that ERI exploration exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms.
Grace Oh, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Social Emotional Learning Inside and Outside the Classroom
Moderator: Rebecca Bailey
Social-emotional Learning through Peer Interaction in Small Group Math Instruction
The findings of this study will help inform best pedagogical practices for social emotional learning in early childhood classrooms in Boston Public Schools. Further, we hope that this research will contribute to existing research about the effects of peer interaction on academic and social outcomes among young students.
Hannah Kelly & Jina Hur, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Parent Experiences in a Social and Emotional Development Dual-Generation Program
What do parents really think? Despite a growing body of literature that discusses the importance of engaging caregivers in social-emotional education, there are very few SEL programs collecting information about the experiences and perceptions of parents taking part in SEL programming. Evidence shows that caregivers play a central role in the social emotional development of children, yet parent voices are often muted throughout the implementation and evaluation of school-based SEL programs. This presentation looks at the experiences of 28 caregivers who participated in the SECURe Families pilot program. Through a thematic analysis of identity maps and reflections, parental identity and program-related goals are explored.
Thelma G. Ramirez (Presenting Author), Stephanie M. Jones, Rebecca Bailey, & Ann Partee, Harvard Graduate School of Education
The Association Between Preschoolers' Social Perspective Taking Skills (SPT) and Academic Outcomes
Social perspective taking skills have been found to be predictive of students' long-term academic success. Studies have also shown that SPT is closely associated with gender and children's language backgrounds. By conducting regression analysis based on the Renfrew Bus Story (RBS) data, we hypothesize that more competent perspective takers in RBS activity are more likely to perform better academically, as manifested in their scores on PPVT and Woodcock-Johnson Test. We also hypothesize that girls and emerging bilinguals tend to have higher SPT skills.
Jia Yang & Zhongyu Wei, Harvard Graduate School of Education
The Role of Student-Teacher Relationships in Social Emotional Learning
Moderator: Dr. Gretchen Brion-Meisels
Connections Between Student-Teacher Relationships & Child SEL: EF, Discipline, Prosocial Behavior
How connected are Student-Teacher Relationships and child social emotional learning (SEL) behaviors? Almost all US states have preschool SEL competencies and an increasing number have them through elementary and high school. However, considering student SEL development in isolation is a mistake. Ecological models suggest a dynamic relationship between child-level social emotional behaviors and teacher behaviors. Data from a 2017-18 study of 6 low-income, elementary schools is used to explore the associations between student-teacher relationships, Self-Regulation, Discipline Rates, and Prosocial Behavior, at three time points: fall, winter, spring.
Natasha Blitz Jones (Presenting Author) & EASEL lab, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Teacher-child Interactions and Socioemotional Learning in Boston Public Schools
Research suggests that there is a relatively robust association between the quality of the preschool classroom and children's positive socioemotional development. However, there is currently a lack of research in naturalistic settings which focuses in detail on the specific aspects of teacher-child interactions which may drive this relationship. As such, this study investigates this phenomenon by asking two key research questions. Firstly, what is the nature of the relationship between classroom quality and children's socioemotional development in Boston Public Schools? Secondly, in classrooms of varying quality, what is the impact of specific teacher behaviors on children's positive socioemotional development?
Lily Fritz & Emily Albery, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Closeness Score: The Association of Teacher-Child Relationships on Social Skill Evaluations
Growing strong bonds with teachers aids the student both academically and socially (Baker, 2006). Kindergarten The Teacher closeness is a marker of an attunement to the complexities of the student social development. This paper looked at 5,591 students across the United States from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study 2010-2011 to determine if there is an association between teacher reported closeness with student and teacher reported evaluation of social skills. We found a statistically significant positive relationship when controlling for age, student gender and SES. Ongoing investigations into mediators and stimulators of positive closeness is needed.
Carolina Zamora & Fan Xia, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Roundtable Sessions 10:30-12:00
Equity in Higher Education
Moderator: Dr. Matthew Miller
What's in a Name?: Lessons from Low-Income Student Activism at Harvard, Stanford, and UChicago
Elite American colleges/universities are eagerly recruiting and successfully enrolling larger proportions of low-income (i.e., high financial need or Pell-eligible) college students. For low-income college students who did not attend elite boarding or day schools, their entry into highly privileged educational settings is often accompanied with looming doubt about their social, cultural, and academic fit with their new educational institution. This paper surveys the literature on low-income students' college transition alongside campus newspapers and editorials from three highly selective universities: Harvard College, Stanford University, and the University of Chicago. Recommendations for future research and higher education professionals conclude this survey.
Safiya Johnson, Harvard Graduate School of Education
The American University vs. Women's Liberation: Gender, Sex, and the Politics of Coed Space
In the 1970's the Women's Liberation Movement led to revolutionary changes in gender norms on American college campuses, with students demanding that universities radically restructure their approach to women's education. This presentation uses interviews conducted with Harvard and Radcliffe undergraduates during these years to illustrate the ways in which young people understood national social and political changes through the lens of college life. In particular, it focuses on the push for coed housing at Harvard, and the creation of social spaces at the university that included both men and women.
Eli Plenk, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Experiences and Perceptions of Hispanic Males while Seeking a Higher Education
Hispanic males are not only underrepresented at various post-secondary institutions but face more challenges throughout their academic careers than other mainstream groups. The aim of this study is to show how a Hispanic male's experiences can affect their academic success. The research questions are answered through focus groups and one-on-one interviews with school personnel and Hispanic males pursuing a university degree. The data show that while addressing the need to develop a college-going culture in the U.S., it is important to consider the factors that impact a Hispanic male's decision to successfully pursue and complete a college education.
Louis Gracia, University of Houston-Clear Lake
Improving Sexual and Reproductive Health Education in China
This study aims to assess women's sexuality and reproductive health attitudes, perceptions and behaviors in the hope of building a foundation for the future design of educational interventions on this issue grounded by an understanding of the existing barriers. Such research is essential for making decisions on the policy level particularly regarding resource allocation and education program development to achieve widespread educational equity. The central question is how China's Northeast region can improve sexual and reproductive health education?
Xinye Zou, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Identity, Inclusivity, and Access in Education
Moderator: Pooja Bakhai
Understanding Transracial Chinese Adoptee Schooling Experiences
Transracial Chinese adoptees are individuals who have been adopted from China by White parents. How do transracial Chinese adult adoptees interpret their racial identities? How have experiences in K-12 and higher education environments influenced their identity development? Through interviews, observations, and primary sources, I create a portrait of four Chinese adult adoptees, drawing on Professor Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot's portraiture methodology. I find that throughout their lives, these adoptees have found it difficult to achieve a sense of belonging within their (predominantly White) schools, families, and hometowns. Experiences with classmates and teachers often reinforced their racial differences.
Meghan Kelly, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Students of Color Sense of Belonging in a High School Race, Class, and Gender Elective
Students of color in majority White schools form their identity in often hostile environments. Instances of discrimination, implicit bias, and the belief that racism is an issue of the past, all contribute to an individual's inability to effectively engage in conversations about race. My research examines the experience of students of color enrolled in a High School elective course entitled Race, Class, and Gender. The goal of this study is to understand the mechanisms by which conversations centered on race impact students of color and their sense of belonging in these spaces.
Gillian Geffen, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Left with Little "Choice": Information Gaps, Inequities, and Attempts to Level the Playing Field
School choice programs are rapidly replicating in urban spaces as proponents of choice champion the programs' private goods but fail to acknowledge the uneven information access of parents that make school choice a questionable public good. Differential access to information leads these policies to reflect systemic inequities and exacerbates the stratification of educational opportunities by family income. In this research, I analyze how schools and districts attempt to partner with parents to facilitate information sharing and productive choices and posit that schools may be best positioned to stem the exclusion of students from low-income families from academically superior schools.
Jason Saltmarsh, University of Maryland College Park
A Call for Inclusive Health and Sexual Education
LGBTQ mental health is strongly affected by two distinct factors including a negative family environment and peer rejection. Facing rejection from both their primary and secondary social ties often results in a higher incidence of risky behaviors. The extent to which these negative environments can affect health outcomes of LGBTQ youth largely depends on their access to programs aimed to not only support them but also their peers. An inclusive health curriculum gives opportunities for students to analyze personal and social pressures to engage in risky behaviors, such as media influence, peer pressure, and social barriers.
Dawn M Myers, Teacher's College, Columbia University
New Approaches in Pedagogy
Moderator: Megan Powell Cuzzolino
Adult Learners & Discourse on Complex Issues
To investigate how thinking regarding an issue changes in form following concentrated discourse with like-minded peers, we undertook a qualitative examination of changes in the reasoning that 34 older adults used to justify their positions prior to and following such discourse. They showed a divergence of patterns. A minority abandoned mention of previously expressed ideas at odds with their own positions or otherwise narrowed the reasoning used to justify their positions. Consistent with findings from previous studies, only a minority showed increased certainty and/or extremity (polarization) on quantitative scales. A follow-up study compares results for a sample of young adults.
Whitney T. Ricks (Presenting Author), Deanna Kuhn, Davidella Floyd, Peter Yaksick & Mariel Halpern, Teachers College, Columbia University
Peace Education: Emergent Themes, Future Directions
What is the role of education in civic reconciliation and peace-building? This literature review analyses theoretical framings of peace education, in conversation with empirical case studies of reconciliation efforts in Peru, Rwanda, Colombia, and South Africa. The author argues that in order to understand the normative framing of peace education, foundational concepts like forgiveness and reconciliation require examination. Therefore, this paper presents a range of attitudes towards the idea of forgiveness in political contexts, reflecting the nuanced and somewhat contentious nature of these debates. Finally, it questions whether models of political forgiveness or personal forgiveness are adequate in educational settings, and presents directions for future research in this field.
Alysha Banerji, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Machine Learning and Education: Applications and Pedagogical Implications
This research discusses applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in education and derivative pedagogical implications. While the literature has identified advantages of applying machine learning in education, the scholarship is relatively silent on which pedagogical approaches are best suited for AI in education (Knight et al., 2013, p. 76; Buckingham Shum & Ferguson, 2012, p. 5). This research considers the following inquiries: What are the applications of machine learning in education? What are pedagogical implications of machine learning use in education? This research illustrates how the principles of teaching can map to the existing opportunities of machine learning applications in education.
Chelsea Han, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Global Education Learning Activities' Correlation with Global Competency Outcomes
What is the association between the degree of school's integration of volunteerism and students' global competency outcome, controlling for school's integration of other global education learning activities, and does that association differ according to student engagement in classroom discussions about world events? We study "global competency", with data from Research School International (RSI) in collaboration with OECD/PISA. RSI designed and administered surveys to address a series of research questions on PISA global competencies scales.
Jo Wang & Zhongyu "Sylvia" Wei, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Supporting Struggling Readers and English Language Learners
Moderator: Dr. Pamela Mason
Measuring Struggling Readers' Response to Intervention with Speech-to-Text Expository Writing
Do children need to read and generate print in order to be literate? Literacy, in its broadest sense, is the opportunity to understand, engage with, and contribute to the world. However, children who struggle to decode text miss many opportunities to demonstrate what they gain from learning experiences in school. This study examines whether struggling first grade readers produce higher quality expository writing through speech-to-text software than transcription, and if differential effects are found between writers who did and did not participate in a science and social studies content-driven reading intervention program.
Emma Shanahan, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Uses of AI Speakers for English Language Learners
Many English Language Learners (ELLs) in countries where English is used as a foreign language have difficulty finding someone to communicate in English. Especially, they rarely grab opportunities to use oral English skills. A good piece of news for them might be the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) speakers: this brand-new technology can provide ELLs with interactive and meaningful oral communications in English. This study examines AI speakers' potential and limitations as a language learning tool.
Dongkeun Han, Havard Graduate School of Education
The Relationships Among Parental Beliefs, Parenting Stress, and Mom-child Shared Reading in China
This study investigated the relations of family background, parenting stress, home literacy environment, and parents' perceptions on home literacy practice, specifically mother-child shared reading, in mandarin speaking families in China. The results showed that by controlling family backgrounds and home literacy environment, mother-child shared book reading was negatively related to parenting stress and perceptions on knowledge learning, technology using, and dialect speaking. Interestingly, income was not a significant predictor of shared reading in all models and parents' education was not a significant predictor when the model contained home literacy environment, parenting stress, and parents' perceptions.
Peizhi Wen, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Raising Pitch as a Prosodic Resource for Doing Affiliation
This paper examines naturally occurring conversations between three friends in a voice call. Using conversation analysis, I show how raised pitch functions as a prosodic resource to maintain affiliation during the following instances: (1) while doing a tease, (2) before failing to answer a question, and (3) before doing a critique. While raised pitch works as an invitation to interpret an otherwise critical turn as a tease, it also takes on a different function by maintaining affiliation before the disaffiliative turn is actually delivered. In light of the analysis, I discuss the implications for English language learning and materials development.
Alexander Lee, Teachers College, Columbia University
Using Immersion to Detect Teachers' Implicit Biases: Work in Progress
As part of the Reach Every Reader (RER) initiative, researchers examined whether immersive technologies could aid in detecting teachers' implicit biases towards certain types of students. Former K-2 teachers (n=7) were asked to evaluate simulated students' performance in a virtual classroom environment. Preliminary findings suggested that some teachers found the virtual environment to realistically model an authentic classroom experience. Though suggestive trends emerged in respect to teachers' implicit biases, additional research is needed to determine the extent to which these immersive technologies can detect and mitigate biases, allowing teachers to more effectively support their students' attainment of foundational literacy skills.
Jennifer Wang (Presenting Author), Guanhua Nie, Karan Bhola, Iulian Radu & Chris Dede, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Teacher Professional Development for Inclusive and Multicultural Education
Moderator: Pei Pei Liu
Gutman Conference Center Area 3
Anti-Bias Professional Development for Educators in Predominantly White Spaces
Education scholars have discussed at length the impact of race, class, and culture on education, offering suggestions for White educators to teach an increasingly multicultural classroom. But what about White teachers in predominantly White spaces? White teachers teaching predominantly White, monocultural students also need preparation on how to teach with an anti-bias framework. This professional development curriculum uses the Social Justice Standards from Teaching Tolerance to guide educators through four domains: Identity, Diversity, Justice, and Action. The goal is for educators to work through each domain so that they may in turn teach these standards in their own classrooms.
Jane Marie Hutcheson, Teachers College at Columbia University
Teacher Personality Traits and Collaboration in Co-Teaching
To be in accordance with special education law, schools must include special education students in the general education classroom to the maximum extent possible. A strategy many schools are using is co-teaching. The issue that arises is the successful implementation of this practice. There could be many factors related to the difficult implementation of co-teaching. In this study, the researcher will examine the teacher collaboration aspect of co-teaching. In particular, the researcher will analyze the relationships between teacher's personality traits and their openness to collaboration.
Brittany Craig, University of Houston-Clear Lake
Preparing Preservice Teachers for Student Teaching Through Multicultural Education
This research explores how multicultural education courses prepare preservice teachers for their student teaching experience. Through course document analysis and interviews, this qualitative research follows preservice teachers from their first day in a course about classroom diversity into their student teaching experience. By having students reflect on their preparation to be effective teachers in real classrooms, findings explore the role of preservice teacher curriculum that explicitly includes learning about the myth of meritocracy, colorblindness, and intersectionality.
Jennifer Burris, University of Maryland College Park
Keynote Speaker & Lunch 12:00-1:30
KEYNOTE SPEAKER: PROFESSOR CHRISTINE MCWAYNE
Gutman Conference Center
Panel Sessions II 1:45-3:15
Exploring Quality in Early Childhood Education
Moderator: Robin Kane
The Relationship Between Changes in Social-Emotional Skills and Language Growth in BPS preschoolers
This study of 224 BPS students examined the relationship between social-emotional skills and language outcomes from pre-kindergarten to kindergarten. Data of four time points from Fall 2016 to Spring 2018 was analyzed. Preliminary results showed that language skills are positively related to some of the social-emotional skills, but this relationship became insignificant when SES was added. With the multilevel growth model, we hypothesized students with high social emotional skills, SES and teacher's emotional support will have better language outcomes. We hope this research points out the importance of teachers' emotional support to children's language outcomes controlling other factors.
Ge Jin & Fang Liu, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Using Dialogic Reading Strategies to Enhance Classroom Quality through CEREC Intervention Program
This study investigates whether the China Early Rural Education Collaborative (CEREC) intervention of textual instruction would affect teachers' verbal and nonverbal behaviors through dialogic reading strategy. The participants of the study are 4 novice teachers from Shenzhen, China. Mixed methods are used to analyzes the coded transcriptions of lesson videos and interviews with the participating teachers. The anticipated results of the study include a positive association between the CEREC intervention and the practitioners' teaching quality, and the effects would remain afterwards. The results would provide implications for the design of teacher training programs regarding the content and the instructional framework.
Erqian Xu & Junyi Li, Harvard Graduate School of Education
The Impact of ESL Programing and Parents Education on Emergent Bilingual Language and Vocabulary
Research shows that both parents' education level and quality programming impacts emergent bilingual success. We will examine, the relationship between Boston Public School kindergarten students educational attainment in vocabulary and language, as measured by score on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, to the students 1) parental level of education 2) quality of programming (teacher ELL certification/ teacher training) adjusting for parental income and language status. We will be conducting a quantitative secondary data analysis utilizing multivariate regression to examine data collected on education level of guardians and quality of programming.
Vicky Qun Yu & Nicole Senders, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Exploring the Role of Media and Technology on Learning
Moderator: Dr. David Dockterman
Student Vlogging SAT Verbal Strategies
As high school students prepare to take the SAT, many often struggle to retain testing strategies and tips. Many students responded by describing the lack of engagement and entertainment of current YouTube videos when it comes to teaching strategies. In response to their feedback, the researcher created an intervention workshop that meets once a week for one hour. Students volunteered to join the workshop with the intention of creating SAT Strategy vlogs to be used and shared among their peers. The proposals examines the effect of students' vlog production on SAT Verbal scores for urban high school students.
Tamla Lee, Temple University
Mobile social portfolios as an alternative form of assessment for maker-oriented learning
This research study explores the use of social computing and social media technology as an alternative form of assessment for non-traditional learning environments. More specifically, the focus is on how online social portfolios could help students learn, reflect and document their progress in project-based, problem-based, maker-oriented learning environments. This study presents and discusses current data collection and analysis related to elementary school-aged students (7 to 10 years old) engaging in interdisciplinary STEAM (Science, Technology Engineering, Art, Mathematics) projects in their school's makerspace, and the students' use of a mobile portfolio tool to document and evaluate their learning progress.
Monica Chan, Teachers College, Columbia University
Explore Quadratic Functions with Augmented Reality and Geometer's Sketchpad
In this study, we used Augmented Reality (AR) and Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) to design and implement a teaching package of quadratic functions for Grade 9 students with different mathematical achievement. We aimed to compare two groups (high- vs. low-achievement) of students’ views toward AR- and GSP-based materials. To assess teaching effectiveness and students’ views, we conducted pre-test, post-test, and interviews. Comparative analysis showed growth in mean scores, especially for low-achievement students. From interviews, low-achievement students liked real-life simulation feature in AR and dynamic feature in GSP while high-achievement students preferred modeling feature in AR and efficient drawing feature in GSP.
Shuhui Li, Yihua Shen (Presenting Authors) & Xingchi Lu, Teachers College, Columbia University
Collaborative Learning Experiences in Virtual Reality (CLEVR)
Taking place in a virtual reality experience inside a diseased cell, two participants collaborate to diagnose and administer treatments to cure this disease. This study investigates collaboration in virtual worlds, and focuses on what roles players take on, and how they reflect on the process of working together after completing the experience.
Mohamed Raouf Seyam (Presenting Author), Laura Zhang & Meredith Thompson, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Implications for Pedagogy and Curriculum Design in STEM
Moderator: Dr. Joe McIntyre
Developing STEM Curriculum: Starting by Uncovering Student Beliefs with Strategic Interviewing
STEM education is often viewed as context-irrelevant; curriculum remains the same despite a changing classroom. The present study adapted an interview protocol from the Understandings of Consequence Project by Project Zero in order to capture students' understanding of a specific phenomenon in science. Interviews were carried out with students ranging from Grades 2-12 (n=12); students demonstrated a range of misconceptions about the topic. The researchers argue that this protocol has multiple uses: to inform lesson and unit development, serve as formative assessment, and challenge conventional delineation of scientific topics in curriculum.
Stefania Khoda & Julia Winemiller, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Home Math Practice, Executive Function, and Early Childhood Math Achievement
Children’s initial (upon preschool entry) and longitudinal (in two years) math achievement were studied in relation to both initial home math practices and executive functioning (EF) skills. 131 4- to 5-year-olds attending Boston public preschools were extracted from the ExCEL project. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that controlling for parent’s educational level, certain initial home math practices and EF skills were associated with initial math achievement, and initial EF skills were also associated with longitudinal math achievement. The associations differed little by parent’s levels of education. This study hints strategies to support children’s early math development.
Zoe Mao & Qihan Chen, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Engineering Diversity: Effects of Prior-Experience with Distributed Subtasks on Performance and Tran
It is well established that diversity and collaboration positively impact performance and innovation during complex problem-solving tasks. We posit that diversity can be a more dynamic aspect of human cognition. In an empirical experiment, we examine whether effective team diversity can be engineered. We address this question by distributing subtasks of a complex problem between two participants in advance of their collaborative work on the larger problem. These subtasks predispose participants to different perspectives and strategies; thus, partners encounter cognitive diversity when working as a dyad. Findings suggest that distributing subtasks among group members enables individuals to transfer innovative solutions.
Katherine Strong Moore (Presenting Author), Sarah Jednak, Anuta Rathe & Dr. James E. Corter, Teachers College, Columbia University
Special Education: Identifying Need and Support
Moderator: Parastoo Massoumi
Lost and Not Found! Who’s Missing in Early Childhood Intervention Programs? A Mixed-Methods Study
Children with exceptionalities account for 13% of the nation’s student population. Of those children being labeled with learning and emotional disabilities, 17% are African American. A gap exists in the years prior to K-12 for identifying minority children with special needs. Minority children with special needs are being identified for early childhood intervention services at a much lower rate than their Caucasian counterparts. A call to action is needed to explore why marginalized families are missing out on early intervention services. The aim of this study is to explore the perceived parental barriers preventing them from accessing special education resources.
Erika Aziegbe, University of Houston Clear Lake
Special Education in Boston Public Schools: What Can and Cannot be Concluded from the ExCEL Study
Students who have been identified with disabilities prior to preschool entry begin their early childhood education with specialized services aligned to their individual needs, while other students with disabilities are identified and begin receiving services after beginning preschool. Based on ExCEL data from Boston Public Schools, this study will examine the math performance over time of students who were identified with disabilities after entering preschool. However, since students who already had an IEP prior to preschool entry were required to be excluded from the sample, implications for the exclusion of special education populations from large research studies will be examined.
Nicole Nash, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Developing a Neurological Understanding of Metacognition
Metacognitive interventions have been shown to be tremendously important to general education and supporting individuals with neurological disabilities (Brown, 1978; Webb, 1989; Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009; Dweck, 2017). This presentation details the many facets and relationships between neurology and metacognition. The investigation draws from a wide diversity of neuro-investigational techniques and findings related to metacognition, executive function, self-reflection, self-evaluation, self-development and self-directed learning. Common themes from the research will be highlighted to broaden understanding and the very practical impact of further investigation into this field of inquiry
Philip Hulbig, Lesley University
Supporting Students’ Transitions into Higher Education Equity
Moderators: Becca Basset and Alejandro Garcia Fernandez
Can Folkehøjskole Help Make Taking a Gap Year Function as a Higher Education First-Year Experience?
Two college transitions models get a great deal of discussion lately: taking a gap year, and higher education sponsored first-year initiatives. A number of institutions support the deferral of first-year acceptance and even more specifically support the behavior of taking a gap year. Now consider the folkehøjskole model of the Scandinavian states where andragogical theory states that many students need more time to develop before joining the adult and working world. What kind of synergy can the models of gap year, first-year initiative, and the folk high school create to address the diverse learner making the transition into higher education?
Sara M. Fawcett née Flowers, University of Southern Maine
Comprehensive Student Support and the Academic Performance of First-Gen. and Low-Income Students
Educational programs have helped increase the share of high-performing, low-income students at top tier universities. Despite their services, few programs have the capacity to support students once they enroll at university campuses. The Incentive Awards Program at UC Berkeley was one of few programs that provided recruitment and retention services to low-income and first-generation college students. Using extensive student-level data from the university, I estimate the effect the program had on students' first term GPA. My findings indicate that the program had a positive effect among all of their students, and suggest that the effect was largest among African American students.
Teresita Cruz Vital, Research Scholars Initiative (Economics)
Culture Shock and Self-Reevaluation: How Low-Income Students Adjust to Elite Schools
Objectives. This study explores why some low-income students experience social mismatch at elite schools, while others do not. Methods. Data is based on twenty in-depth interviews with alumni of a Chicago-based high-school scholarship program. The sample includes Blacks, Whites, Chinese-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and bi-racial individuals. Findings. Class, more than racial diversity or lack thereof, influenced the creation of close ties in schools. Moreover, while cohort-building programs aid low-income students adjust emotionally to a new school setting, institution-mandated intergroup contact in the form of extracurricular involvement and community-building excursions aid students become more socially integrated into, and comfortable at, their new school.
Safiya Johnson, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Teacher Professional Development in Context
Moderator: Dr. Vicki Jacobs
An Investigation into the Relationship Between Teacher-Parent Communication and School Bullying Rate
Will students' behaviors being influenced by the way their teachers communicate with parents or caregivers? This study explores the relationship between middle school students' bullying behaviors and teachers' preferences on the information that they would like to talk to parents. Eight middle schools' students and teachers in Vermont were involved in this study through questionnaire surveys. Participants' responses were analyzed in a pilot regression model, which reveal that there is no significant correlation between variables. However, the question is still worth considering on the influence of mesosystem on adolescents development.
Haiqing He, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Research for Action: The Impact of Adultism on YPAR Setting Change
Adultism is the systemic dehumanization of young people by adults. Youth researchers and advocates fight hard to be taken seriously as they improve their communities, and adultism is a barrier they face. This mixed-methods study analyzes the impact of a teacher professional development led by Youth Participatory Action Researchers (YPAR) on levels of teacher adultism in the Somerville school district, and the extent to which lower levels of adultism correlates with teachers implementing youth recommendations.
Ashley Barnes-Cocke, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Resisting 'Subprofessional' Status: How Teachers of Color Navigate their Institutional Contexts
This study draws upon in-depth interviews with educators of color to contribute to scholarship on the challenges they face as well as their corresponding resistance in schools across one urban district. I find that these educators confront racialized challenges: they are not considered pedagogical knowers, de-valued in administrative decisions, and encounter violence when elevating concerns of racism in the workplace. Drawing upon Mills' (1997) Racial Contract (RC) theory, I propose the term 'subprofessional' to more fully capture participants’ experiences. Finally, I discuss the strategies educators of color use to resist racial domination to meet the needs of their students.
Pooja Bakhai, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Poster Session 3:15-4:30
Reviewers: Rosa Guzman & Linda Castillo
Gutman First Floor Reading Area
A Bilingual Framework for Schools Serving Urban Low Socioeconomic Communities in India
In this paper, we present a framework for school leaders, aimed at demystifying the research regarding designing an effective learning environment for bilingual/multilingual learners in India. The framework attempts to break down the research into concrete, accessible components that can be implemented, by urban schools serving students from low-socioeconomic backgrounds, in different permutations and combinations as per the reality of their context. The framework aims to serve as a reflective tool which will enable school leaders to be aware of their current practices and thereafter guide them to design effective bilingual learning practices.
Mehernaz Eshraghi & Murali Mallikarjunan, Harvard Graduate School of Education
An Analysis of the Costs and Potential Benefits of School Based Food Insecurity Interventions
Solutions to student food insecurity frequently arise at the school or district level to fill gaps left by governmental nutrition assistance programs. We examine the societal costs of such interventions in North Carolina and seek to understand how school and state resources are combined with external resources including volunteer time and donations to facilitate these programs. We aim to shed light on the complex combinations of resources currently leveraged at the local level to help buoy students through food insecurity. Further, this work will serve as a resource to help policymakers interested in scaling similar programs to reach more students.
Rebecca Davis (Presenting Author) & A Brooks Bowden, North Carolina State University
A Qualitative Study on Contributing Factors to Swedish ELLs' Oral English Proficiency
This study aims to identify the key contributing factors to Swedes' high oral English proficiency. Interviews with an English teacher and K-12 students in Swedish schools were transcribed and coded. Also, their instructional materials and the national English curriculum documents were analyzed. The findings of the study suggest that their high English oral proficiency could be largely attributed to the emphasis on the communicative functions of English in formal education as well as adequate exposure to English input from media technologies.
Dongkeun Han, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Colleges in the Corporatocracy
Today's neoliberal capitalist state challenges higher education, prompting colleges to lobby using tactics familiar to corporations. I use a convergent parallel mixed methods study to ask whether public, private, and for-profit colleges lobby like corporations by examining lobbying patterns at the federal and New York state level of government from 2004 to 2014, critical years for higher education. The lens of higher education allows us examine how interest groups attempt to influence public policy, which has implications for policymakers, the public, and especially students, who are facing the largest student debt crisis in history.
Matthew J. Camp, Teachers College, Columbia University
Culture and Context Matter: Parenting Practices and Ethnic Minority Children Academic Outcomes
Does a universal standard of good parenting exist? Researchers have found contradictory findings regarding the relationship between parenting and academic outcomes for racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse children. This project had two main objectives; 1) to examine the relationship between parenting practices and ethnic and racial minority children's academic outcomes and 2) to analyze mediating cultural and contextual variables on this relationship. By using longitudinal data from nine New York City public schools, we worked to fill the gap in literature regarding the role that culture, and context play on the relationship between parenting practices and academic outcomes.
Kristen Jiin Park (Presenting Author) & The EASEL Lab, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Curiosity, Learning, and Frontal EEG Asymmetry
Curiosity plays a critical role in our daily behaviors and interactions. Yet, little is known about its neural underpinnings. By reframing curiosity as the motivation to obtain information, and using metrics of brain lateralization, we investigated the correlates of curiosity in the PFC and its effects on learning. Twenty-eight undergraduate students answered trivia questions while EEG was recorded, also indicating their curiosity towards each question. One week later, participants were asked to recall the correct answers. Results supported the idea that FBA is a better predictor of memory recall than self-reports, and possibly a more reliable way to measure curiosity.
Gabriel Lima, Drew University
Do Parents Really Matter? An Investigation of Caregiver Characteristics on Developmental Outcomes
Parent characteristics influence developmental outcomes. Whether a child is raised in a lower- or higher-income country, whether a family is lower- or higher-income, and whether parents have completed formal education all contribute to parents' capacity to engage with their children, play with them, and support their development during the critical developmental period from zero to thirty-six months of age. The impact of these characteristics is assessed alongside motor, language, cognitive, and social emotional skill outcomes from the Caregiver Reported Early Development Index (CREDI).
Johanna Leslie (Presenting Author) & Dana McCoy, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Evaluating Teacher Performance in Cote d'Ivoire with an Equity Factor
Cote d'Ivoire's education system faces numerous challenges. Providing sufficient and adequate infrastructure and hiring enough teachers will require enormous amounts of resources which are difficult to muster. We agreed with the ministry to focus on another major challenge: motivating teachers by providing short-term non-financial rewards and a career promotion plan. To do this we had to come up with a teacher performance evaluation tool. During our field research we found large inequalities in teaching conditions across the country. We designed a performance evaluation tool that is both robust and accounts for the difficulty of each particular context.
Maximo Plo Seco, Kumkum Arora, Antoine Beland & Eliane Lakam, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Examining the Role of Socioeconomic Status in Summer Reading Intervention Response
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and response to summer reading intervention. Children (n=53, 6-9 years old) were recruited from a diverse SES community to participate in summer reading programming with pre- and post-testing of reading-related skills. Parents were requested to complete SES questionnaires. Summer programming entailed a five-week session with reading curriculum (Lexia) provided in the AM and community-based activities in the PM. We hypothesize that lower SES will be associated with greater improvement in reading outcomes. We aim to identify opportunities for improving student outcomes in the context of reading.
Xochitl Arechiga, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Examining the Variability in Executive Function Performance in Children with ADHD
Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can demonstrate deficits in executive functioning (EF) skills, including processing speed, working memory, inhibition, response variability and arousal/activation. However, the prevalence of EF difficulties among students with ADHD is not well understood. In the current study, we examine common EF indices in children with and without ADHD to examine the heterogeneity of cognitive profiles within the broad diagnostic category of ADHD.
Karolina Wade (Presenting Author), Noor Z. Al Dahhan, Carrie Peek, Kelly Halverson, Dayna Wilmot, Rachel Romeo, Andrea Imhof, John D.E. Gabrieli & Joanna A. Christodoulou, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Factor Analysis of the Learning Behaviors Scale with Native American Students
The present study analyzed the validity of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) with 2 groups of Native American students. The LBS is an assessment of learning related behaviors which impact a student's success beyond what is accounted for by cognitive ability. Some learning behaviors include attentiveness, strategizing, and participation. Assessment of these observable behaviors provides a basis for targeted intervention and potential improvement in achievement, particularly in under-served populations. Education and academic achievement for Native Americans are important areas of research and intervention, benefiting our competence in accommodating all students in schools and mitigating the negative impact of historic mistreatment.
Samantha Rushworth, Temple University
Higher Education & Immigration: Navigating a Path Towards Employment in the U.S.
In efforts to further comprehend what it means to be a Black African immigrant living in the U.S., Migration Policy Institute gives us an eye-opening view of their characteristics (US Census, 2010). Particularly, compared to U.S. born citizens, Black African immigrants are not only more educated, but also have a difficult time obtaining adequate employment. Even more, to obtain comparable employment, they are often required to return back to school. Still, little is known about the impact of international education policies and its effect on educated African immigrants students in U.S. higher education. My work seeks to expand this scholarship.
Susan Ogwal, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
How effective are MOOC discussion forums in online learning? An analysis of forum participation
Discussion forums play an important role in online learning platforms and have been used to support engagement and learning. They can promote an online learning community and can also be a platform for social self-regulated learning (Wandler & Imbrale, 2017). An example of discussion forums being utilized for learning and community are in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). We investigate whether or not students' usage of MOOC discussion forums are associated with higher predicted course grades. The enrolled students (n =37942) were analyzed using the log data of the MITx Supply Chain MOOCs, which were offered from 2015-2017.
Rachel Kwon (Presentign Author) & Josh Littenberg-Tobias, Harvard Graduate School of Education
How Does Receiving Instant Gratification Affect Depression Rates for Adolescents?
Depression rates amongst adolescents in our 21st century society have doubled since a generation ago. As adolescents today are amongst the first generation to move through this developmental stage with social media naturally within reach, the use of social media is often attributed towards this shift. However, the effect of social media on adolescents diagnosed with depression can present both positive and negative outcomes. This study examines the effect of the two most frequently used social media platforms amongst adolescents, Snapchat and Instagram, to address how instant gratification received from using these platforms may be affecting depression rates.
Debbie Kwan, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Making Community: Culturally Responsive Maker Education for Low-income Thai Public School
This study explores a design framework that emphasizes making connections to students' community and creating relevant cultural connections to their constructionist learning experience. I present a case of 4th graders at a low-income school in Thailand, designing and building inventions to solve community problems. Inspired by the Thai King Bhumibol, who was the country's unifying figure and widely admired as "The Developer King," students made things that were personally meaningful to their community. Students were innovative in their design effort and reflective of their achievements by doing things that are useful for others aligned with the spirit of King Bhumibol.
Sawaros Thanapornsangsuth, Teachers College, Columbia University
Ready, Set, Goal: What GPA Tells Us About How Students See Their Future
What do you want to be when you grow up? While this popular question posed to adolescents usually surmises an answer, It leads educators to an even bigger question; Why aren't students doing what they say they want to do? This five-year longitudinal study at a Massachusetts high school (N = 1200; 39% POC) examines the relationship between students academic success and their feelings of purpose. Purpose is a long-term, forward-looking intention to accomplish goals that are meaningful to self and of consequence to the broader world and has been referred to as the ultimate source of motivation (Damon, 2008).
Nicole Johnson, Whitney Polk & Nancy Hill, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Relationship Between SMC Meetings and Student Learning Outcomes in Tamil Nadu (2016-17)
The School Management Committees (SMCs) mandated through section 21 of the RTE (Right to Education) Act of India bring together the school and the communities, thereby making schools a collective entity. The current study focuses on bringing out the relationship between the functioning of SMCs and the student outcomes using the data captured by the District Information System for Education (DISE) under the purview of the National Institute of Education Planning and Administration (NIEPA).
Murali Mallikarjunan & Jae Eun Choi , Harvard Graduate School of Education
Studying Up, Down and Sideways; Socioeconomics and Family Engagement
In 1972, Anthropologist Laura Nadar made the argument for "studying up" as well as "studying down"*. In studying down, a topic is explored primarily from the dominant perspective and may result in one-sided policy recommendations. "Studying up", on the other hand, opens the conversation because it includes multiple contextual elements. In the case of family engagement programs and policies, 'studying up' examines how families in affluent communities relate to schools, providing important context. 'Studying up' alongside 'studying down', can reveal previously obscured assumptions, institutional inequities, and areas of exclusion in the family-school relationship.
Elizabeth Lee, Lesley University
Summertime literacy attitudes and reading activities among children of diverse reading abilities
This study explores summertime reading activities and literacy attitudes among children with and without reading difficulties. Participants (7-12 years old) were typically reading children (n=26) and children with reading difficulties (n=33) from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Children were grouped by reading ability based on assessments of reading and related skills that they completed 1:1 with research team members. At the beginning and end of the summer, parents of participants completed questionnaires about their child's summertime reading activities and attitudes. Study goals include identifying the quantitative and qualitative aspects of summer literacy experiences for young children with and without reading difficulties.
Riri Uchida (Presenting Author), Kelly K. Halverson & Dr. Joanna Christodoulou, Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions
The Influnece of English Learning on Identity (re)construction of Minority Kazakh Students in China
The study employs interview-based qualitative research method by interviewing nine Kazakh minority students in universities in Xinjiang and other inland cities in China. The findings suggest that through English learning, some students have reconstructed multiple identities as multicultural and global identities, which created 'a third space' to transcend the confused identity as someone in-between. Meanwhile, most minority students were empowered by English language to resist inferior or marginalized position and reconstruct imagined elite identity. However, English disempowered student who has little previous English education in school, and placed them on unequal footing with others, which further escalated the educational inequities.
Sharapat, Nazarbayev University
The Role of Children's Racial Identity and its Impact on their Science Education
The purpose of this narrative study is to: (1) understand children's perspectives about racial identity and their own notions about race, (2) examine the learning of science that takes place in the children's schools, and (3) explore the role of parent engagement of their child's learning and their notions of science. This study gives insight into the ideas and thoughts of a subset of children and their relationships to the world and the science around them. This study also asked about their parent's involvement in regards to their science education and their access to science within their community.
Lisa McDonald, Teachers College at Columbia University
Vocabulary for All: A Discussion Based Vocabulary Intervention
This school-wide, discussion-based vocabulary intervention for first graders at an elementary school in the Southeastern United States sought to increase the quantity and quality of rigorous vocabulary used by teachers and students. Through weekly vocabulary instruction, class-conversation using the vocabulary-embedded discussion questions, and writing, students were exposed to 50 target vocabulary words with a corresponding and equally rigorous synonym. Word knowledge was measured through pre- and post-tests. Writing samples were also examined for vocabulary usage. Student post-test data and writing samples showed promising results.
Doug Mosher & Claire White, Harvard Graduate School of Education
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